|Indications||Adjuvant treatment for cough
|Dosage form||Syrup - 120 ml|
3 times a day, one jam spoon full each time (5 m.g)
Carvacrol, thymol, linalool, p-cymene, mucilages, amino acids and flavonoids.
Based on presence of 2.55-3.06 mg thymol and 24.225-29.325 mg amino acid per 5 ml of syrup.
|Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action||
The E Commission has confirmed Thyme as a medicine for alleviating coughing and Bronchitis. A wide range of action against bacteria causing upper pulmonary infection has been reported for thymol and carvacrol. It is believed that thymol and carvacrol make complexes with proteins of the bacterial membrane . A synergistic effect has been reported for combined use of thymol and carvacrol . Carvacrol is the main component of the essential oil of Zataria Multiflora .its antibacterial and fungicidal effect has been demonstrated by tests on many micro-organisms. It has also been established that high enough doses of thymol and carvacrol have laxing effect on wind-pipe.
Essential oil of Zataria mulyiflora is effective on pathogenic bacteria such as ( S. Aureus ).</p><p style="text-align: justify;">It also alleviate or suppress . Symptoms such as coughing and phlegmonous reaction of upper respiratory tract .It has been used as antipasamodic and as remedy for bronchitis and spasmodic cough in adults and for whooping cough in children . Different tests have confirmed the effectiveness of Zataria Multiflora for alleviative productive cough .
In a double –blind randomized test , 60 patients suffering from phlegmonous cough were given either Zataria multiflora or Bromhexine syrup for 5 days . According to these patients' reports on their own conditions , there has been little differences between Bromhexine and Zataria multiflora with regard to effectiveness . there was a significant difference (non- Statistically Speaking )in the speed of recovery of smokers and non-smokers of both groups ( those given Bromhexine and those Zataria multiflora).
In another double-blind randomized test on the effect of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora on coughing ,199 patients suffering from acute coughing
Were given either drops containing essential oils of sweet feneel and Zataria multiflora(3times a day 20 drops each time ),or clobutional or placebo,for 3 days .50% of those who had received zataria multiflora and sweet fennel drops and 50% of those who had received clobutional experienced total recovery .
The corresponding number for those who had received placebo was 9.1% effectiveness of zataria multiflora plus sweet fennel drops,clobutinol and placebo on those ailing from productive cough was 56.5% ,55% and 20% respectively.A statistically significant difference could be observed between zataria multiflora plus sweet fennel drops and clobutionl on one hand and placebo on the other hand (p<0.01)
The E commission has confirmed by dry coughs. Althaea officinalis is also used for treatment of inflammations of respiratory tract or digestive tract , Bronchitis and coughing .Cough suppressing effect of polysaccarides separated from the essential oil of Ataea effect of the essential oil itself and that of non-narcotic based cough suppressants . According to the results, the separated polysaccharides caused a considerable reduction (Statistically) in the number of coughs and the intensity of coughing reflexes, with the effect being higher than that of the essential oil itself. Both in vitro and in vivo, rhmnogalacturonan separated from Althaea officinalis roots has shown some dosage dependent effect on coughing reflexes and reactions of smooth muscles of respiratory tract. This Substance (rhmnogalacturonan) has cough suppressant effects comparable to those attributed to codeine. </p><p style="text-align: justify;">However, neither in vitro nor in vivo, sensitivity of smooth muscles of respiratory tract was not greatly affected by rhmnogalacturonan . It can be stated that this substance's cough suppressing effect is not the result of its branchodilatory effect. Moreover, its cough suppressing effect is not influenced by action of K+ATP ionic canals .it seems that rhmnogalacturonan's cough suppressing effect is somehow related to the functioning of 5-HT2 Serotonergic receptors.
Zataria multiflorand Althaea Officinalis:
157 patients suffering from acute coughing and aged between 10 to 85 were divided into two groups and were given either Bronchobarij Syrup ( group one -78 patients ) or dextromethorphan ( group two -79 patients )in a double –blind randomized test ; they received their respective medication of 5 m.L of either drug every eight hours for 4 days . Check lists were filled on these patients' condition 24, 48 and 96 hours after the beginning of the medication. Recovery was expressed in three levels: total Recovery (coughing totally stopped), partial recovery (patient is satisfied that the number of coughs or their duration is reduced by half) and no recovery; intensity of coughs were recorded based on a visual Analogue Scale or VAS on each visiting of patients. Coughs were given a score of Zero (no coughing) to 10 (debilitating). According to the results of that study , 50% pf patients who had received Zataria Multiflora and Althaea Officinialis extract containing syrup corresponding number for those who had received Dexthrometorphan was 49.3% . No Statistically significant relation was perceived between the degree of recovery and the type of drug used (p= 0.94). At the beginning of the test, the average VAS score was 607 for group one and 6.8 for group two. At 24 hours ,48 hours and 96 hours from the start the average VAS score for group one were 4.4 , 3.3 and 2.67 respectively . Corresponding numbers for group two were 4.49, 3.35 and 2.4. Both drugs should statistically significant effect in all phases of the treatment (P< 0.001). Average drops in VAS score for group one at 24, 48 and 96 hours were 2.3, 3.26m3.85 respectively. Corresponding numbers for group two being 2.3, 3.4 and 4.1 with regard to suppressing cough ,no meaningful differences was perceived between the two drugs ( P> 0.006 )
|Contraindications||Pregnancy, breastfeeding, children younger than 4 years|
Allergic reactions (contact dermatitis) in sensitive individuals, stimulation of mucous membrane, kidney problems in case of prolonged use or dosages higher than the recommended amount.
|Interactions||No reported drug interaction.|